In collaboration with Chris Salter and Harry Smoak.

Just Noticeable Difference (JND) is a sensory environment for one person at a time lying in total darkness. The installation is based on Gustav Fechner’s concept of the Just Noticeable Difference: the ability to perceptually detect the smallest changes in sensory stimuli. During a set time period, visitors experience an extraordinarily wide range of visual, auditory and tactile sensations that challenge how we perceive the smallest degrees of change in sensory stimuli over different levels of intensities. Just Noticeable Difference explores the gaps in seeing, hearing and feeling, the fluctuation of noise and order and the play between sensation and sense making directly taking place at the level of bodily experience.


  • Concept/Direction: Chris Salter
  • Sound Design: Marije Baalman/Chris Salter
  • Sensing/Programming: Marije Baalman
  • Light: Harry Smoak
  • Production Management/Artistic Assistance: Brett Bergmann and Matthieu Tremblay
  • Installation Construction: Jan Ohl (Holzwerkstatt, Berlin), Duncan Swain and Justine Chibuk (Montréal)
  • Technical Direction (Europe): Thomas Spier, Marije Baalman, Bram Giebels

Funded with support from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada and the Conseil des arts et des lettres du Québec.


  • Muffathalle, Muffatwerk, Munich, Germany, June 2013
  • Lille 3000, Tri Postal de Fives, Lille, France, November 2012
  • Exhibition Emergencias, Art & Arquitecture Programme of Guimarães 2012 European Capital of Culture, Guimarães, Portugal, June-September 2012
  • CTM.12 Exhibition, Kunsterlhaus Bethanien, Berlin, Germany, February 2012
  • TransLife 2011, National Art Museum of China, Beijing, China, July-August 2011
  • Elektra 12 (2011), Usine C, Montreal, Canada, May 2011
  • Mois Multi 12, Recto Verso/Meduse, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada
  • MetaMorf 2010, Biennale for Art and Technology, Trondelag Senter for Samtidskunst Trondheim, Norway, October-November 2010
  • TodaysArt 2010, The Hague, Netherlands, September 21-22, 2010
  • ISEA 2010, PACT Zollverein, Essen, Germany, August 2010
  • EMPAC (Curtis R.Priem Experimental Media and Performing Arts Center), Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York, February 2010 (World Premiere)